Archive for July, 2011


Mobile technology generations have been on a rise since its inception. 2G was there for quite some time. With the advent of 3G, both 2G and 3G were used by the mobile users. Later, it took a step ahead and now even 4G is available in the market. 2G and 3G are used the most in the market. 4G is a little new to pick up with the previous Gs, but it is slowly and gradually catching up.

3G and 4G are mobile technologies having certain benchmarks. They have revolutionized the mobile using technologies for the subscribers. Many consumer facilities like conferencing, multimedia, streaming etc. have been transformed. 3G has already caught a grip on the market; 4G is still nascent for the users. As 4G is a new generation, several differences can be marked between the two.


3G technology is faster than 2G and hence is gradually replacing 2G. The main advantage of 3G over 2G is that it not only provides the internet services but also provides faster access with voice. However, 3G is the best connecting network at present as far as mobile communication is concerned, especially mobile internet. 3G networks allow simultaneous voice and data services with speed variation from 200 kbit/s and if its only data it may deliver several Mbit/s. (Mobile Broadband).
Technically, 3G uses a combination of circuit design and packet design. Circuit design is the oldest and hence has the capacity to hold the connection for a longer time. Packet design is the wireless technology and is the core part of the internet data transmission. Amalgamation of both helps it to perform faster.


4G is catching eyes globally due to its high speed rate. It offers the speed at 100 Mbit/s for moving users and 1GB for stationery users, which is a revolution in wireless access technology. It is almost like getting a LAN card or an Ethernet connection on your mobile. If your mobile has atleast 54 Mbit/s downloading facility than with the help of 4G, you can run any internet application as you do on your desktop. You can even make VoIP calls from your handset. However, it also provides a facility wherein you do not need to change your number or opt for a new number if you move to a new place. But, if it is within the area of your Wi-Fi connection than the calls can be diverted on your phone. You can make video calls or conference calls even while you are travelling. 4G Technology uses packet switching network. 


Globally 3G is used widely as far as mobile technology is concerned while 4G is considered to be an extension of 3G. There are a lot many differences that set apart the two technologies. 3G use both circuit and packet based network which means that it uses both wired and wireless technology; while 4G uses only the packet technology which makes it first generation of technology to be completely wireless.
4G is much faster and is like a mini computer. As per 4G specifications the speed should be 384 kbps in stationary mode and 100 mbps in mobile environment. The speed is much lower in 3G being 2Mbps in stationary mode whilst 4G specifications it should be 1 Gbps.

4G network is all IP whereas 3G a mix of circuit and packet switching network. Notable point is that many companies that fall under 3G started dubbing their companies as 4G. In fact they are not compliant for 4G and are termed as 3.9G. 3.9 G depends on spatial multiplexing, which is basically an antenna system, used by International Telecommunication Union (ITU), deployed for transmitting and receiving of data. Earlier in 3G there was smart antenna used, but 4G uses number of these antennas for speeding and facilitation of the data transfer process.




Diabetes has become a common disease these days. Due to the changing life style, irregularity in food patterns and also due to hereditary, many people are suffering from diabetes. It is a common disease found throughout the world. It is a chronic and progressive ailment that bears upon almost every organ and system of living body. Diabetes evolves when the body is unable to produce sugar properly. It is characterized by high level of blood sugar and excretion of excess glucose though urine. The disease is more common amongst obese people.

Basically there are three types of diabetes.

  • Diabetes in which the body stops producing insulin or produces very less insulin is called Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
  • Diabetes in which the body is unable to see the produced insulin. This kind of diabetes can be easily controlled by proper diet, exercise and weight loss. It is non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
  • Gestational diabetes happens to pregnant ladies in the second part of their pregnancy and automatically gets cured after the delivery of the baby.

    Diabetes is a disease that has to be properly taken care of or it could lead to several other problems. It has an effect on other systems of the body. If it is poorly controlled or left untreated, it may lead to blindness, kidney diseases, blood vessel damage, infection, heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke and many more. Diabetes is a disease with very common symptoms like frequent urination, fatigue, weakness etc. Hence sometimes it goes unnoticed in the earlier stages. Late detection can have tragic consequences. With early detection the chances of living a healthy and productive life increases.

    Most of us know that there is no cure for diabetes. Once you get it, it will be the shadow of your life. The only thing that can be controlled is the blood glucose level. We do take our medicines without failure but along with that we can also try out some home remedies to control your blood sugar.


There are many ingredients in our kitchen itself that help us to bring down the sugar level. Most of the times either we are unaware about these ingredients or we prefer to follow just the medicinal practice. One can try the following methods at home in order to control diabetes.

  • Curry leaves are found in almost every kitchen. Chewing 8-10 curry leaves in an empty stomach will be very effective in bringing the sugar level in urine and blood to normal. It is also beneficial for hereditary diabetic patients.
  • Garlic is the tasty herbal remedy for diabetes patients. Allicin present in diabetes helps not only in reducing the sugar level in blood but also brings about disintegration of cholesterol in the body.
  • Considering vegetables, bitter gourd contains plantisulin, insulin like principle which is precious in lowering blood and urine sugar levels. Hence diabetic patients should include a considerable proportion of bitter gourd in their diet. For best results, a glass of four to five bitter gourd juice should be consumed daily in an empty stomach. Even the seeds of the vegetables can be powdered and used as a spice.
  • Mango leaves also prove to be very effective. Soak mango leave in water overnight. Next day morning the juice has to be taken in an empty stomach.
  • Indian plum (Jamun) has a specific action on the pancreas which controls the conversion of starch into sugar. However, it is better to consume Jamun seeds than the pulp as they are more effective. Almost all fruits contain a little amount of sugar. Hence it is advisable not to include fruits in your meal. If at all you want to have fruits, have it two hours after having your meal. Diabetic patients should consume fruits along with their skin for eg. apple, peach etc.
  • Neem leaves are an effective nature care for diabetes. Consuming neem juice every morning in an empty stomach controls the blood sugar levels. This is one of the best home remedies for diabetes. Cinnamon is a very useful herb. Add 3-table spoon of cinnamon to 1 liter of boiling water. Simmer for 20 minutes in a low flame, and then strain the mixture. Drink this mixture daily to cure diabetes.
  • Prepare a mixture by adding equal quantities of turmeric powder and dried gooseberry powder with honey or drink equal quantities of gooseberry juice and fresh turmeric juice in an empty stomach daily.
  • The combination of Indian Gooseberry powder and turmeric powder into water daily in the morning also shows amazing results.




Several great personalities have been born on the land of Gujarat. But for free India, Mahatma Gandhi is one of the eminent names in giving a free life to the Indians. Mahatma started his struggle from the place he was born –Porbandar. Situated between Dwarka and Veraval, Porbandar is a small beach side town. Earlier it was called ‘Sudamapuri’. It was named so because it is believed that Sudama, Lord Krishna’s friend lived here.
Porbandar was a rich port that belonged to Jethwa Rajputs who ruled the vast area of Kathiawad for nearly 2000 years. Many prominent personalities are attached to the ancient city. It is not only the land of Mahatma Gandhi but even Swamivivekand had done much of his research here. Moreover, Rabindranath Tagore visited the city for a considerable period of time. The city used to be a prosperous trading centre conducting much commerce with the Arabian and the Persian countries.


Porbandar is an ancient prosperous town and due to its prosperity, it has several places of attraction. Structures throughout the city display the architectural beauty. Till date on either side of the road one can see magnificently carved windows and gateways which speak the architectural language of the olden era.

Kirti Mandir is the most important attraction of Porbandar. It is a place where Mahtama Gandhi was born in 1869. The mid 19th century Haveli of the Gandhi family has three stories around a courtyard with a kitchen, 17 rooms and a wooden shrine. Kirti Mandir is constructed adjacent to the birth place of Mahatma Gandhi. It contains a library with books on Gandhism, a spinning hall, a children’s nursery and a lovely prayer hall. In the prayer hall of the Kirti Mandir of Gujarat prayers of all faith are regularly organized.

Huzoor palace is perhaps the most impressive structure in Porbandar. The massive structure built in the European style is situated at the edge of the sea. It has several massive windows and wings overlooking the sea. The palace was built by Natwar Shah, the then ruler of Porbandar. Sprawling gardens and fountains add to the beauty of the mammoth structure. Just by having a glance you might take it as some European Palace. The neo- classical pillars and the porticoes with a semi circular design, the terraces with beautiful rails and the slopping timber roof are the notable parts of the palace. The architecture, beauty, and the picturesque view of the sea attract a large number of tourists to the Huzoor Palace. Being located on the sea side it is visited by both residents and visitors of Porbandar.

Daria Rajmahal is another important palace of the city built by Maharaja Bhavsinhji in the 19th century. Standing on the edge of the Arabian Sea the palace shows the influences of the Arabian culture. However, some parts of the palace are Italianate in style with an interesting blend of Renaissance and Gothic touch. The interiors of the palace like chandeliers, painted murals and the European furniture are eye catching. Moreover the town hall and other public buildings are also no less in terms of architecture as they were made under the watchful eyes of the Maharaja. It is crowned by a tall tower that offers a marvelous view of the palace courtyards, the beach beyond, and the sea. The palace has now been converted into a college.

The land of palaces and forts has one more fort depicting its fortune. Darbargadh is a fortified palace built by Rana Sartanji. Stone carved entrances, wooden doors and windows are a part of the attention seeking entrance. The large mansion and courtyard are a beautiful example of Guajarati wooden carving. Moreover, the fort has several bastions, 3 small gates and 4 main gates. The main gates are Porbandar gate in the west, Kathiawar Darwaja in the east, Halar Gate in the North and Junagadh gate in the south. The smaller gates are Sita Bari, Bhinji Bari and Darbari Bari. One can approach the palace through Darbari bari, a beautiful entrance resting on the brackets adorned with four elephants with the jharokhas adding to the beauty. The palace resembles the Navlakha palace in Gondal. The palace is made to resemble a jewel box. It is designed with complex geometric designs, sculptures of musicians, intricately carved pillars decorative kanguras and horizontal friezes.

Everything that was built in the city during the ruling era has a royal touch. Even Grishmabhuvan, a pavilion built by Maharana Sartanji provides the glimpse of the Rajput architectural style. The three-storied summer pavilion has exquisite pillars, impressive domes and delicate arches. It is divided into four parts depicting four seasons. It was a kind of asylum for the Maharaja away from the crowd of Porbandar.

Over and above the palaces and forts, it is interesting to know that Porbandar is the only city in the country which has the temple of Sudama, the close friend of Lord Krishna. The beautiful shrine constructed between 1902 and 1907 is situated in the center of the city. While constructing Sudama Mandir there was a shortage of fund and hence in order to complete the structure people organized drama shows. There is a plaque in the temple depicting this entire course of events. The temple contains a maze. It is believe that crossing the maze washes all the sins of a person.

Another such shrine in the city is Bharat Mandir situated amidst a beautiful garden. There are a number of murals that depict the religious men and preceptors of India. There are beautifully matched mirrors in the temple which depict the Gods and legendary personalities from the Hindu Epics and the Indian Puranas. Here children can enjoy the distorting mirrors present in the temple.


If one has a day or two more than Porbandar offers some beautiful places around the city. Wildlife lovers would not like to miss Kuchdi, a picturesque hamlet situated just 20 minutes away from the city. The place has a bird sanctuary and would be a paradise for bird and photography lovers. This is the only bird sanctuary in the state which is established very near to the city. The area supports good population of Flamingos and other resident and migratory waterfowl. In the past, flamingos had attempted nesting also.

If one is fond of viewing the age old constructions than Ghumli is the right place. It was once the capital of the Jethwas before they moved to Porbandar. The place is famous for its Naulakha temple, considered to be the oldest sun temple in India built around the 8th century, and the 12th century Vikia vav, with numerous flights of steps and string coursed carvings.

A 30-minute drive from Porbandar takes one to Barda Hills covered with forests where one can find the Khambala Dam with its intricate, decorated kiosks.



The place of 25 paise coins have been shifted from market to your coin collection book. RBI has notified that 25 paise coins will no longer be a legal tender from June 30. Arrangements were made for people to exchange these coins for their face value at all RBI branches and other forty five banks maintaining small coin depots and notified by RBI.

With this, many middle aged people are brushing upon the days when 25 paise could fetch too much. Considering the inflation and constant devaluation, the decision is not much of a surprise. Some of the shops had already stopped accepting these coins months ago. With this, 50 paise coins will be the only ones having a decimal value.

25 paise coins were introduced in 1950 along with the decimal coinage system in the country. According to the RBI sources, the first RBI coinage was introduced on August 15, 1950 where the British King’s image was replaced by the lion capital of the Ashoka Pillar. Corn sheaf was replaced the tiger on one rupee coin. The other coins also underwent a transformation and carried Indian symbols. During the coinage system one rupee was divided into 16 annas. Later 25 paise coin was launched in place of ‘char aanas.’ The Indian Coinage Act was amended in 1955 to adopt a metric system for coinage. The Act came into force in 1957. The rupee was divided into 100 ‘paisa’ instead of 16 annas. The new decimal paisa was termed ‘naya paisa.’

Initially metals like bronze, nickel-brass, etc were used in making the decimal coins. Later, these were changed to aluminum. Lately, it was observed that the cost of minting the coins is higher than their face value. Hence coins of 1 paisa, 2 paise and 5 paise were discontinued. In 1980’s stainless steel coins of 25, 50 and 1 rupee coins were introduced. Slowly and gradually even 10 paise went out of circulation in the market.


After banning 25 paise coin from the market, we need to see whether banning 500 and 1000 rupee notes is logical or not. In Baba Ramdev’s protest against black money and corruption, he demanded the government to ban Rs. 500 and Rs. 1000 notes in order to curb the corruption that has spread across the country. Baba Ramdev said, “If the ban is imposed the wealth accumulated by the corrupt people will come out in the market.”

The demand of Baba Ramdev did not find any support from bankers as they do not feel that the demand is feasible. According to data from RBI, of the Rs 7,88,299 crore currency in circulation, 76% is in the form of Rs 500 and Rs 1,000 notes. When it comes to numbers, these two notes comprise of 17% of the currency notes. However, if these two notes are withdrawn, the cost of printing notes will go high creating a chaos in the economy.

You might have observed that whenever you punch an ATM card, the maximum notes that an ATM throws are of 500 and 1000. If these notes are withdrawn, ATM will hold less than a fifth of their current capacity. However, even the cost will rise causing an inconvenience to customers. Moreover, the customers will not be able to withdraw more than Rs. 5000 at one punch because an ATM can throw maximum 50 notes at a time. The ATM will have to be filled several times a day which will affect the customers.

Moreover, some women feel that instead of 25 paise coins, RBI should ban Rs. 2 coins as some vendors provide unwanted items like candies due to lack of change. On the other hand some chemists also will be unhappy with the decision as there are some pharmaceutical companies that do not provide medicine in round figure. At such a point of time, 25 paise play an important role.