Archive for August, 2011


Wireless internet technology has been the need of the hour for quite some time now. May it be for businessmen or students, it is necessary to have an internet access with you that keeps you updated every minute. WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is the new technology that is causing ripples worldwide. It is a telecommunication protocol that provides fixed and mobile internet access. WiMAX unites the technologies of wireless and broadband to provide high speed internet access across long distances. It is similar to WiFi but it’s much more ahead of it when it comes to reach.
The system has a great potential and a just like cell phones replacing landlines, this could replace cable and DSL services, providing universal internet services where ever you go.


WiMAX almost operates like WiFi but at higher speeds and over greater distances. As a result WiMAX will have a greater number of users as compared to WiFi. The reach of WiMAX is wider as it uses a directional antenna that can transmit signal to any cell phone tower even outside the line of sight range unlike WiFi. The signals are so strong that they can even penetrate tall buildings and dense trees. WiMAX comes in three formats: Mobile, dongle and fixed. Fixed WiMAX provides connectivity to devices like desktops, TVs (IPTV), whereas mobile WiMAX provides connectivity to wireless devices such as mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs. Dongle is available nowadays that we can connect to our laptops and PCs.

WiMAX system consists of two parts – A tower and the receiver. The tower works similar to a mobile tower. A single tower can cover a large area of about 3000 Sq. miles. The receiver fetches the signals from the tower. It might be placed near your PC or even may be installed in my laptop just like Wi-Fi configuration. A computer (either a desktop or a laptop) equipped with WiMAX would receive data from the WiMAX transmitting station, probably using encrypted data keys to prevent unauthorized users from stealing access.

A WiMAX tower station can connect directly to the Internet using a high-bandwidth, wired connection. It can also connect to another WiMAX tower. Basically two forms of wireless services are provided by WiMAX: line of sight and non line of sight. The non line of sight is just like WiFi where your computer is provided with an antenna that connects to the tower. Whereas, in line of sight, the antenna is placed at the roof of the building. This antenna directly faces and connects the tower. As a result, the line of sight data transmission is much stronger and faster. Non line of sight method uses lower frequency range generally between 2 GHz and 11 GHz whereas line of sight transmissions use high frequencies which can reach a range of 66 GHz.


For simple understanding, it is said that WiFi is like a cordless phone that covers just a small area where it has been deployed. Whereas, WiMax is like a mobile phone which connects to the tower and gives a much wider range. Difference does not just exist in the range but a vast difference is observed in internet speed as well. WiMAX is thirty times faster than third-generation mobile technology and 100 times faster than Wi-Fi. It is set to deliver an astonishing speed of 70 Mbps over 50 kilometers.

The fastest WiFi connection can transmit up to 54 megabits per second under optimal conditions. WiMAX should be able to handle up to 70 megabits per second. In India the service is not used as widely as WiFi but BSNL has started providing WiMAX services. Many other companies have lined up to start the WiMAX services in the country. However, in India the technology is not yet used widely as that in developed countries.




Amidst all tall buildings, industries, concrete roads leading to a developed future; Vadnagar is a place that is still dipped into the richness of the past. It is ancient city in Gujarat that can boast of human inhabitation over a period of more than 4500 years of human history. Vadnagar, the original home of Vadnagar Nagar Community is situated in Mehsana district. The existence of the city has its mention in various scriptures. It has stood to be a strong and prosperous town since centuries. It seems that the city is set on an elevated land’ but the elevation is due to the several settlements that were built and destroyed since its inception.


Situated on the banks of a river, the city consists of the richness of tales from the bygone era. It is believed to be one of the oldest and developed cities in India. It has its mention in scripts and epics like Skanda Purana and Mahabharata. The city was given different names during various centuries like Chamatkarpur, Anandpur and Vimalpur. It is also believed that the famous Chinese Traveller Heuen Tsang explored the place during the 7th century. Various cultures and religions have been set up at this place over centuries. Jains, Buddhists, Nagars, Brahmins etc. have had their traditions spread here for years. The city once used to be a Jain centre and it is believed that remarkable Jain monk Bhadrabahu wrote the famous Kalpsutra here. It was an important place of education with many Jain and Buddhist monks who provided their learning here.

Vadnagar is a land of many legends, starting from Rishi Yagyavalkya, Satyaki and Kirtivarma (Anarta warriors) in Mahabharata had their dwelling in Vadnagar. At present Vadnagar celebrates Tana Riri festival which is a remembrance to Tana and Riri two Nagar sisters. It is believed that the Tana and Riri were two sisters who beautifully sang Raga Malhar to call the rains and relieve Tansen from the burning sensation that he had developed by singing Raga Deepak. Even today we find a Samadhi of the two Nagar girls.

There is one more story of King Chamatkar who was suffering from leprosy due to a curse from a she-deer. As per the advice of the munis, the king took bath in the famous Shankhtirth during the 14th month of the Hindu calendar that cured his leprosy. Thereafter, the town came to be known as Chamatkarpur.

Vadnagar was attacked several times by the sultans and the Marathas. However, the city grew back to light and showed an increasing progress.


Vadnagar has been a city of temples. There are innumerable large and small temples in the city. The most famous of all temples is the Hatkeshwar Temple built 400 years ago. Built after the Solanki era, this is one of the most important and grand temples in Gujarat dedicated to Lord Shiva. The temples might have suffered several attacks as it has been renovated time and again. It is enclosed by a high wall surmounted by three circular domes. From the roof of the sanctum rises a massive pinnacle, which soars high above in the sky. It is said that the shivalinga here is self emerged. The exterior of the temple is exquisitely and profusely ornamented with figures of the nine planets, regent deities, the chief gods of the Hindu pantheon, scenes from the life of Krishna and Pandava princes, besides the varied animal and floral motifs. Apart from the main Hatkeshwar temple there are several other temples in the compound like Kashivishveshvara Shiva Temple, a Swaminarayan Temple and two Jain temples. All these are the age old temples that give you a feel of the ancient architecture and design.

There are several other temples in the city that belong to various eras. In all these temples you can see ornate carvings of the celestial beings. The doorframes, the pillars and the domes of the temples depict the marvelous minutely carved designs. It is a wonderful place for artists and architects.

The most outstanding historical monuments of all are the Torans or the Victory Arches. Many arches are built up on the shore of Lake Sharmishtha by the Solanki rulers. These arches date back to the 10th century. They are called victory arches as they were erected as a symbol on getting victory from the north east occupiers. Built from red stand stones, more than four feet tall arches are a treat to watch. However, some archeologists believe that these torans are remnants of forts. If excavated properly several mysteries might be revealed.

The entire town has six protective walls around it built in 1152 Ad by king Kumarpal. The inscription on stone plaque at ‘Arjun bari’ gate near Sharmistha Lake bears a testimony to this fact. The other five gates were Nadiol, Amarthol, Ghaskol, Pithori and Amatol. Several excavations are a worth watch. In all they throw a light on the bygone era. The recent excavations have brought to light Buddhist Monastery belonging to the 2nd-7th century AD, within the fortified area of Vadnagar. The monasteries had two stupas and the open courtyards having nine cells. These cells create a swastika like pattern around the central courtyard.

It is difficult to find a place in Gujarat which has made its mark since the ancient era. Also it is a land of several communities and traditions. However, it is a place not only dipped in religious aspects but also depict the architecture, culture and tradition of various eras.

Also you can visit the beautiful Taranga hills situated 20 kms from Vadnagar. It is a beautiful picnic spot situated on Aravali hills.



Navigation has always been a problem with human beings since the ancient era. Humans used the position of stars to locate destinations. Later mariners compass was invented that made it easy to locate the maps. However, with cities and countries developing more and more the problem of navigation has increased. People tend to get confused by a number of roads in a city and highways. The problem arises especially when you move into a new city. But, just as the mariners compass was a boon during the olden days, GPS system is a helping hand for everyone these days. Moreover, with mobile technology getting so developed it is a system that can be handy and easy to operate anywhere and at any time.

WE have probably heard about the term GPS and also know a bit about it but rarely anyone knows what exactly it is and how does it work. Also, the technology is still not at the peak due to the lack of awareness.


GPS stands for Global Positioning System, a technology that determines locations using signals from satellite that orbits the earth. It is a navigation system having a chain of 24 satellites. The satellites were sent into the orbit by the US department of defense. The technology was set up for US military but later on in 1980, the technology was made open for civilian use.
It is for anyone who wants to know where they are, where they have been or to find out the map where they want to go. The best part of the technology is that it gives a clear result in all weather conditions for 24 hours. Moreover, there are no subscription fees to use the GPS apart from the initial hardware cost. If you decide to go for navigation with detailed maps, then there is usually a one-time charge for that as well.

The GPS satellites have been set into orbit since 1978. You may wonder that how do they still function and provide the details of current roads of various countries? The main process of the entire working is ‘triangulation’. In triangulation, the orbits are so arranged that at any given point of time, at least four satellites will be seen on your GPS device. Then with the help of the GPS device you can point the place on earth by mentioning the latitudes and longitudes. However, the distance between the longitudes and latitudes and the satellites has to be measured. This process of measuring is called triangulation.
Essentially the GPS receiver compares the time the signal was transmitted and when it was received. The time difference determines how far the satellite is. A few more satellites will measure the distances and that’s how the exact location of the user will be spotted. The result will be displayed on user’s device.
If one wants to get a 2D image, one must lock the signal with 3 satellites in picture. However, 3D and 4D images can be obtained with the help of 4 or more satellites in view. Once the user’s position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time and more.


Whenever we see a technical product in the market, a question arises in their mind is that ‘is the device accurate?’ if yes ‘how much?’ In that regards, these days GPS receivers are run on parallel-multi channel design and hence are very accurate. They can even locate a place in an urban setting or even in dense forests. Garmin GPS receivers are best for the purpose and the new ones can give accurate results within 15 meters on an average whereas the old ones within that of 3 meters. Users can also get better accuracy with Differential GPS (DGPS), which corrects GPS signals to within an average of three to five meters. However in DGPS, the user needs to have a differential beacon receiver and a beacon antenna apart from GPS receiver. US Coast Guard uses DGPS.


GPS can be used in two ways with the help standing devices and also in mobile phones. India is really progressing when it comes to mobile technology. However, as compared to mobile usage, GPS usage is negligible in India. India has been using this technology since 1990’s yet not many know much about it. Western countries have cars that have a GPS set up. However, this trend is slowly coming up in India. Mainly, in India GPS is used to determine weather conditions, track vehicular traffic, for irrigation aspects, used on national borders, to identify vegetation areas, etc.
It tracks the flow of vehicles in a few cities. However, mainly it is used by the government and a few companies but it has not been open for personalized use. The crop production and harvesting can be easily taken care of with the help of GPS.


• It works anywhere on the planet where you can get satellite signals
• One just needs to spend the cost of installation. You only need to pay for the receiver
• Nowadays, you can even have a GPS device in your mobile and cars for tracking your own destination
• The information received is very accurate. The standards have been improved since the year 2000


• You need a clear sky to obtain clear results
• It does not work if you are in a building or somewhere underground
• Interruptions in signal may also occur when you’re driving through a tunnel or standing stationary between very tall buildings.




Carrying a bunch of papers in hand containing different identification proofs in order to get one document is tedious. Sometimes even after submitting the whole lot of papers and standing in queues for hours, we do not get the document as we miss out a certain paper. All this will be a history now as Unique Identification Cards (UID) are being issued to every citizen of the country. UID will contain all the details of an individual hence you do not need to carry a bundle of proofs along anymore.


UID are the identification cards that will be given to every citizen of the country to provide efficient welfare services. It will also help in monitoring various schemes and plans brought by the Government. The first talk regarding UID was carried out in 2006 when the issue regarding BPL cards was being discussed. Later, the project was to be carried out by the National Informatics Centre (NIC) over a period of 12 months. However during July 2006, a Processes Committee was set up for updation and modification in the chalked out UID plan. A “Strategic Vision on the UIDAI Project” was prepared and submitted to this Committee by M/S Wipro Ltd.

The two schemes- National Population Register under the Citizenship Act, 1955 and the Unique Identification Number project of the Department of Information Technology were handed over to an empowered group of ministers by the Prime Minister. Later, with the help of Planning Commission UIDAI (Unique Identification Authority of India) was set up. The objective of this authority is to issue a unique identification number that can be verified and authenticated in an online, cost-effective manner, which is robust enough to eliminate duplicate and fake identities.

The identity giver has its own identity. ‘Aadhaar’ is the name given to the unique identification number. In English, Aadhaar means support or foundation. However, the word almost justifies the meaning in all the languages. Aadhaar has been given a logo having a sun in red and yellow with a fingerprint at the center. It represents a new dawn of equal opportunity for each individual, a dawn which emerges from the unique identity the number guarantees for each individual.


Applying for a UID will not be that difficult as you just need to spare ten minutes for the purpose. UID number will contain not only the address proof but also the biometric details. First of all you need to get a finger print scan of all the fingers. Thereafter, you need to get your eye scanned in order to get your unique iris pattern. For this purpose, one needs to remove the lenses or specks if any. After that, as other documents get your mug shot clicked. Lastly, the officials take down your name, age, address and ask for proofs of those details. You can either of the following: Telephone bill, passport, voter’s ID, electricity bill, bank statement etc.

Several details are kept in mind while framing a plan for UID number. There are clauses that have been laid so that the details are not missed out and the information is correct. Hence, for people who do not remember their exact date of birth can mention their approximate age. In gender category, apart from male and female transgender is included. However, people having cataract operations will face difficulties in getting their iris scanned. An option is being explored for the same.

There is no age bar in order to file for a UID number. But the unique number of a child up to five years of age is linked to that of his or her parents or guardians. On completion of 15 years of age, biometric data is updated, but the number remains the same. In the same manner, even a new born can have a UID, and the biometric details can be updated time and again. In this case as well, the number of the card will remain the same.

It requires just ten minutes getting yourself enrolled for UID number but you will only receive the card within a time period of two months. The authority will use these two months in verifying the given details in order to make it authentic.


UID will relieve you from carrying bundles of pages while getting a document. Only a UID will be enough, providing all the identification proofs. Moreover, the system checks duplication of data. Even if someone files two UIDs then one cannot have different fingerprints and iris. The system scans the details and when duplication is seen in the biometric information, the entry gets rejected. Hence it provides a transparent image of all citizens. Also, it will be easy to file for a passport or a ration card with the help of a UID.

UIDs have not been made compulsory by the government at present but it is likely that within a few years government and many others would ask for UIDs to obtain various proofs.